Lava D. A.

LOST ELEMENTS OF FACADES OF MONUMENTS OF RUSSIAN ARCHITECTURE IN KHARBIN

Abstract. The study is devoted to the restoration and reconstruction of monuments of Russian architecture in Harbin. In this article, the example of historical objects, which are characterized by the presence of a large number of architectural elements, shows the main mistakes made during the restoration, and the details that most often lose buildings during the period of their existence. The article describes the monuments of Russian architecture, made in the style of neo-baroque and modern, which most often need to restore such elements. To perform the work, historical and modern photographs of the objects were collected, which allowed to reveal their architectural and planning features, to trace the main changes in the architecture of buildings and to perform the graphic restoration of the lost elements of the Russian architecture monuments in the territory of Harbin.
The buildings in the neo-baroque style had richly decorated finishes, ku-floors, stucco moldings and intricate sculptural elements that are difficult to accurately restore during restoration and reconstruction. Architectural monuments in the Art Nouveau style are also distinguished by details that are difficult to reconstruct: pendants, numerous curvilinear elements, and lattices with curving rods.
In addition, the preservation of monuments of Russian architecture in Harbin is not given due attention. Therefore, most of the historical sites have now lost their decorative elements: the tops of the dominant volumes, stucco, balconies.
Strong changes were made on the first floors of the buildings where shops appeared. This led to the addition of new entrance groups, changes in the shape of windows, the appearance of signs and advertisements blocking the facade and depriving the object of a solid architectural appearance, due to the fact that each commercial establishment designed its premises differently.
The emergence of new building materials led to a change in the filling of window and door openings. Often new divisions of stained glass did not correspond to historical ones.

Keywords: architectural monuments, Harbin, modern, neo-baroque, restoration, модерн., необарокко, памятники архитектуры, реставрация, Харбин