Akimenko N. Y., Dneprovskaia T. V.

CALCULATION OF ECOLOGICAL DAMAGE AT EMERGENCY SITUATIONS ON MAIN OIL PIPELINES

The article presents data on the emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere,
water and land, what they are and what their consequences. Also, the article presents statistics
of emissions of harmful substances in Russia for 2017 and the calculation of ecological damage.
The main source of atmospheric pollution with hydrocarbon emissions at oil pumping stations
is tank breathing valves and leaks in the packing seals of pumping units, a shock wave collecting
tank, and sewage treatment plants. Hydrocarbon emissions into the atmosphere occur as a result
of the following processes: release of free and dissolved gas from oil, entrainment of dropping
liquid by waste water and its subsequent evaporation, evaporation of oil and gas evolution
through process equipment leakages and tank breathing valves. In order to avoid emergencies
at the enterprises, it is necessary to follow measures for the prevention of ecological pollution.
Basically, these measures relate to the technical part of oil pipeline construction projects. Since
the main reason of accidents on the pipeline is leakage, the article has a diagram of the leak
collection system. Examples of industrial enterprises where emergency oil leaks have occurred,
the consequences of which have caused serious ecological damage, are presented. With the help
of environmental monitoring and expertise, it is easy to determine the amount of environmental
damage, and the used information can be reliable. The information necessary for calculating
the amount of prevented ecological damage can be obtained from project materials for specific
sites, annual reports of territorial environmental authorities, materials from surveys of environmental-
resource complexes of territories (water areas), etc. Oil, petroleum hydrocarbons,
wastewater, oil combustion products can make a dangerous effect on the environment. It has an
adverse effect on human life in future.

Keywords: accident, ecological damage, economic assessment, main oil pipeline, oil transportation, pollution., авария, загрязнения, магистральный нефтепровод, транспортирование нефти, экологический ущерб, экономическая оценка