CREATION OF SAFER PUBLIC SPACES IN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
The article reports the main problems related to the protection of public buildings against crime. It takes into consideration basic risks and threats related to the large public spaces designed to accommodate a number of people: terrorism, vandalism and other types of disorder. Public buildings presents mixed opportunities. On the one hand, they perform the important function of a gathering place, and on the other hand, they use to be attraction for criminal activity. Architects and security consultants may make an effort to deter crime. The author tries to review possible way to prevent them using the pre-project analysis and correct planning. Main principles of crime prevention through environmental design (territoriality, natural surveillance, access control and others) are taken into account.
Author offers to apply risk assessment method that starts with threats ranking and understanding needful level of protection. Moreover it demands to determine main assets and values should be protected. After crime patterns analysis risk assessment results as a set of countermeasures against possible loss.
Eventually author introduces a term of space structuring that coins a complex process employed in architectural practices intended to fulfill large public spaces with clarity and differentiation. These qualities provides further safety in public facilities. They can be ensured by means of architecture, such as security zoning, separation of movement paths, protection of critical points, using of safe and sustainable building materials, creation of a observation points etc. The site, interior and exterior should be integrated into complex safety system adapted to the possible crime events.
Keywords: access control, hierarchy of spaces, safety, space structuring, surveillance, territoriality, Защита, иерархия пространств, контроль доступа, наблюдение, пространственное структурирование, территориальность