ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS IN TOWN-PLANNING DESIGNING OF LANDSCAPE
Research is devoted to study of questions of ecology in town-planning design of landscape. In the development the mankind forms new types of landscapes, which change the structure in process of expansion, anthropogenous activity. The social and scientific and technical progress, development of resettlement change criteria of a town-planning estimation of a natural landscape: - Relative reduction of the importance of such economic resources as mineral raw material, power and fuel resources; - Growth of the importance of recreational resources, ecological properties of a landscape; - Increase of a role of anthropogenous components of a landscape of the transport and engineering communications, cities, systems of service etc. - Reduction of number of restrictions at accommodation of cities in connection with development of building engineering, and occurrence of an opportunity to settle territories earlier considered to be inconvenient. Role of components of a landscape - water, territory and vegetation (as factor of protection from adverse influence of manufacture) now is increased. The concept of a dynamic urban landscape: representation about dynamic and continuity of development of city is basis of town-planning designing. Question on development of dynamic models of development more reflecting evolution of process today is put. In town-planning designing it is necessary to take into account dynamic and hierarchy of processes of polarization. The conducting role in these processes is played by city not only as the most artificial type of a landscape, and as the factor actively influencing on environmental landscape through needs of the environmental in rest, in water supply etc. In this connection also change modern tasks of landscape architecture which is traditional deals with territories, where the elements of a natural landscape prevail and in transformation they are put on the first place by questions aesthetic.
Presently landscape architecture as sphere of activity contacts more closely to town-planning, they decide common and consequently the allocation of specific tasks of landscape architecture becomes even inconvenient. Among the important components of natural environment participating in classification of territories of a dismembered type it is necessary to name depth and degree of mineralization of earth waters; general debit of superficial waters and its distribution on seasons; an annual and daily temperature mode, quantity of deposits, other meteorological characteristics, mineralogical structure of breeds, degree dismembered, form of a relief etc.