Borisov S. V.

ABOUT LITTLE-KNOWN TECHNIQUES OF THE FORMATION OF ORTHODOX CHURCHES BASED ON SQUARES AND OCTAGONS

In the article we consider the few common methods of formation of three-dimensional composition of Orthodox churches on the basis of planning squares and octagons. We analyzed the techniques enhance the understanding of the traditional formation in the domestic Church architecture. We documented historical techniques: stone setting of the tetrahedron on an octagonal base; the transition from the octagon to the upper tetrahedron; the tetrahedral layer rotation of 45º relative to the base. We have noted a trend of gradual narrowing of the historically existing variety of forms and methods. We substantiate the reasons for the low prevalence of the considered methods of shaping. In the article we have analyzed the wooden Church of Christ the Savior near the settlement Berezovets, which is a confirmation of the existence of a rare group of buildings in Russian wooden architecture.

Keywords: architecture, octagon, Orthodox church, shaping, tetrahedron, архитектура, восьмерик, православный храм, формообразование, четверик