Integrated classification of modern urban embankments
The aim is to create a new approach to compiling a typology of contemporary public areas - embankments. Their difference is they combine two main elements of the landscape - water and land. Waterside zones are designed to harmoniously integrate these different components of nature, creating a high quality urban environment. The first section of the publication contains the basic classification and the main characteristics of coastal structures, which prevailed nowdays. In the second part of the article the author attempts to produce a new specification for the most characteristic features in the existing urban development. There is the such kinds of embankments in tabular form: front (powerful river perspective, bordered by beaches, which can be seen from a bridge), square-embankment (multifunctional public pedestrian space, one boundary – a water object), residential (there are waterfronts set houseboats), multi-layered (the basic principle is that the top embankment is connected with a street and the lower one’s used for recreation and related with the water), beach (an urban beach with hotels and cafes, at the top there’s a road and a promenade), park (a natural landscape with water is a recreation area, which contains plants, lawns and boardwalks), street-canal (a narrow river in stones with boats and launches, there’re the promenades, parking, roads and plants above), nominal (embankments, as such, are missing - building hangs over the water, in the best case, leaving a passage on the first floor; coastal walls act as the foundations of buildings), facade (a multifarious creeping construction, down to the water, opens a city skyline at a distance on the water ).
The principal features and examples are described for each type.
Such a way, the integrated classification shows a review of the world practice in the planning and renovation of public spaces that can help architects in solving some urban problems in the future.