Phenomenon of genre paintings “Nianhua”in the folk art of China
Since XII age in China has been custom decorate living spaces with beautiful printed pictures on New Year’s Eve, which are called nianhua (it is means “Christmas picture”). “Christmas pictures” were associated with the cult and ritual sides of holiday, on them depicted Buddhist and Taoist saints. The main part of Christmas pictures depict stories containing symbolic signs wishes of family happiness, wealth, good trade, good harvest and various informative and entertaining stories. Masters used
the technique woodcuts for making Christmas pictures. Workshops nianhua located all over China and created printed products all year long. Nianhua received mass distribution and formed into an independent visual art in the second half of the XIX century. In the XX century Chinese folk painting became one of the most popular types of fine art in China. However, during the last century, the traditional system nianhua completely changed. The new social and political situation in society, pragmatic view of the Chinese leadership to the task of art, on the one hand, has led to widespread folk paintings, but on the other hand - provide functioning in the framework of the “dogmatic culture.” Utilitarian approach to art has led to genre limitations nianhua. Of all the varieties of traditional genres, in the first place nominated realistic genres designed to reflect everyday reality. Leading role in the art nianhua of playing public, household and portrait genre, which brightly and completely illustrate the social and political processes in the society. Is why it is important to present the main stages of the formation of this unique phenomenon of artistic culture of China XX century.