“THE THEORY OF NATURE” IN THE EUROPEAN ARCHITECTURAL THEORY OF THE ROMANTIC ERA (PART I)
The article deals with one of the major problems of European architectural theory of the Romantic era - the problem of the expression of national and art singularity in architecture. In the XVIII century “theory of nature” was developed for its solution (the German version of “doctrine of nature”). The concept of “nature”, which arose in the theory of landscape art, was moved to the “general” theory of architecture, making it possible to enrich the work of architecture with new content. It was facilitated with using psychological and emotional impact methods, using the symbolism of simple geometric shapes, large masses, checkered light and shade. Sentimentalism theory played аn important role in the development of the concept of “nature”. Following this provisions, it was necessary to create “natural architecture”, having a “harmony of the higher impact”. The examples of the provision development of the “nature theory” were shown by European theorists of the XVIII century.
Keywords: architecture; romanticism; character; theory of landscape art; realism; sensationalism; historicism; nationality, архитектура; романтизм; характер; теория садово-паркового искусства; реализм; сенсуализм; историзм; народность