Kazantsev P. A., Kim A. N.


This research is devoted to search of the most preferable types of the atriums and the passages for the reconstruction of free spaces within city blocks that are formed by the historic buildings in the central part of Vladivostok. For these purposes, four major types of trading and pedestrian spaces within city blocks had been distinguished in the degree of control the level of comfort microclimate. The
most relevant among them for the climate conditions of the Far East are two types of buffer spaces: spaces with system of natural climate control and spaces with a controlled system of climate control. In addition, the distribution of empty spaces within the city blocks was considered according to the existing buildings and relief. As a result of the overview of the spatial characteristics the main five types of free areas within a city block were defined: 1) simple poly structure and 2) complicated poly
structure suited on the flat areas; 3) linear type with an increase in the steepness of the slope across the main axis; 4) transit type with an increase in the slope of the relief along the main axis of the city block; 5) isolated type of space, which was found both in the areas with a flat terrain and with obvious skew. For each kind of these spaces were proposed appropriate types of atriums\passages. Evaluation of spatial situations by the criteria preferred for the reconstruction of the social and trading pedestrian areas displayed that inner spaces of the first, second and fourth types are preferable to forming systems of atria and passages; for the fifth - atriums; the third - the arrangement of atrium is difficult. For a more detailed study of the project was selected the block of GUM which is located on the terrain area and contains variety types of spaces (enfilades and courtyards), that are preferred as for
the atrium, as for the passage.

Keywords: atrium; passage; reconstruction; relief; free space, voids within a city block; spatial characteristics; trading and pedestrian are as; buffer spaces., атриум; пассаж; реконструкция; рельеф; внутриквартальные пространства, пустоты; торгово-пешеходная зона.