THE CONCRETE AND METAL CONSTRUCTIONS OF ORTHODOX CHURCHES
This article presents the usage of modern construction materials in temple construction. The usage of reinforced concrete and metal structures was analyzed. The intense historicity of reinforced concrete for the Christian architecture was marked. The fields of the reinforced concrete application in the modern temple construction were specified. The fields are plate, tape and pile foundations, flat-slab (not dome-shaped) decks of basements or choir lofts (intermediate decks). This material is traditionally used for reinforced framework of a church, vertical and horizontal elements in the masonry, supporting pillars in the cross-dome system, arches. The problems connected with the use of reinforced concrete for dome-shaped decks and walls of churches at restoration works were considered. The traditional use of metal structures in the temple construction is specified as tie bars of brick domes connected with vertical and horizontal elements of metal frame structures in the masonry. Nowadays the extensive frame structures of domes are common, including that ones with modern coatings imitating golden leaf. A method of vacuum sputtering thin films of titanium and zirconium nitrides is widely used for coating of domes, crosses, and other elements decorating churches. Modern and historic complex space structures require the monitoring of the condition on a regular basis. The relevance of the non-destructive control method of building and structures testing based on the fixing the displacement of construction elements was marked in this article. Nowadays most materials and technologies are considered as innovative ones, and were introduced to the temple construction at the beginning of the 20th century; it stays within of the stable architectural and construction schemes. It is stated in the article that the use of reinforced concrete in the temple construction is a reality.
Keywords: design, metal structures, nondestructive control method, Orthodox church, reinforced concrete, железобетон, металлоконструкции, метод неразрушающего контроля, православный храм, проектирование